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Openssl verify self signed certificate chain

As Priyadi mentioned, openssl -verify stops at the first self signed certificate, hence you do not really verify the chain, as often the intermediate cert is self-signed. I assume that you want to be 101% sure, that the certificate files are correct before you try to install them in the productive web service openssl verify certificate chain To verify a certificate and its chain for a given website, run the following command: openssl verify -CAfile chain.pem www.example.org.pem Where -CAfile chain.pem is the downloaded certificate chain installed at the site and www.example.org.pem is the downloaded end entity server cert For OpenSSL stating your rootCA being self-signed. This could be due to your rootCA not being installed into your certificate store on the OS (or even web browser). Installing a.crt file across operating systems can vary, Adding trusted root certificates to the server will explain how All the traffic is intercepted by corporate firewall and it replaces the certificate and then adds their own self signed certificate. The self signed certificate is not recognized by anyone apart from you or your organization and which causes the SSL certificate problem: self signed certificate in certificate chain I installed GoDaddy SSL certificate on my Apache server. Some users are still reporting issues (Some versions of IE say This page cannot be displayed with no further explanation), and openssl says that there is a 'self signed' certificate in the chain. Please note, this is not a self-signed cert. It is signed by GoDaddy

For a client to verify the certificate chain, all involved certificates must be verified. Server certificate by intermediate CA, which is verified by Root CA. Client already has the root CA certificate, and at least gets the server certificate. Missing certificate therefore is the one of the intermediate CA openssl s_client -connect myweb.com:443 -showcerts doesn't have any particular reason to trust Verisign's root CA certificate, and because it's self-signed you'll get self signed certificate in certificate chain I see. So what you're saying is if I want self-signed certs to be verifiable that way - they must not have that non-CA constraint. Makes sense. If I want to partially verify a certificate via the command-line utility - e.g. when I don't have the issuing certificate at hand, is there a way to tell openssl tool to go just as far as it can *without* climbing up the cert chain

Verify a certificate chain using openssl verify - Stack

  1. $ openssl verify -CApath /dev/null -partial_chain -trusted c3 c2 Verify c3 We will verify c3 using Google.pem certificate.In this step we do not need -partial_chain because Google.pem is self signed certificate which means root certificate. $ openssl verify -CApath /dev/null -trusted /etc/ssl/certs/Google.pem c
  2. When using self signed certificates, you need to provide the Root CA certificate (and possible intermediates) to validate the chain. When using a recognized Certificate Authority, you usually only..
  3. Re: self signed certificate in certificate chain Post by Sop_1000 » Thu Dec 20, 2018 2:37 pm Ok, so I realized, I forgot to drop the new CA and TA.key on the actual config folder
  4. e what certificates are being presented by a server to the client. The best way to exa
  5. It can be useful to check a certificate and key before applying them to your server. The following commands help verify the certificate, key, and CSR (Certificate Signing Request). Check a certificate. Check a certificate and return information about it (signing authority, expiration date, etc.): openssl x509 -in server.crt -text -noout Check a ke
  6. Verify the signature on the self-signed root CA. This is disabled by default because it doesn't add any security
  7. This is sometimes called thumbprint authentication because the certificates contain thumbprints (hash values) that you submit to the IoT hub. The following steps tell you how to create two self-signed certificates. Step 1 - Create a key for the first certificate openssl genpkey -out device1.key -algorithm RSA -pkeyopt rsa_keygen_bits:204

Verify certificate; openssl verify <> -CAfile <ca_cert> -untrusted <intermediate cert> <cert file> Please note that you can provide multiple intermediate certs with -untrusted parameter. How to verify certificate chain. Let's assume we have 3 certificates as below (I have used facebook's cert chain for this example) OpenSSL verify Root CA key. We will use openssl command to view the content of private key: [root@centos8-1 tls]# openssl rsa -noout -text -in private/cakey.pem -passin file:mypass.enc RSA Private-Key: (4096 bit, 2 primes) <Output trimmed>. Step 6: Create your own Root CA Certificate

openssl verify - Verify a certificate and certificate

  1. read. From time to time it may be necessary to verify what certificate is being presented by the server that you are connecting to. Sometimes this is a SMTP server or it could be a web server. While there are multiple methods that can be used to validate a certificate presented from a server I am going to be.
  2. Checking websites for username 12:04:09 PM Checking username.com 12:04:09 PM ERROR TLS Status: Defective Certificate expiry: 5/21/19, 12:21 PM UTC (358.25 days from now) ERROR Defect: OPENSSL_VERIFY: The certificate chain failed OpenSSL's verification (0:18:DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT). 12:04:11 PM AutoSSL will request a new certificate. 12:04:11 PM The system will.

Why is openssl complaining that my certificate chain is

5 Ways to fix : SSL certificate problem: self signed

  1. cat chain.pem crl.pem > crl_chain.pem OpenSSL Verify. We now have all the data we need can validate the certificate. $ openssl verify -crl_check -CAfile crl_chain.pem wikipedia.pem wikipedia.pem: OK Above shows a good certificate status. Revoked certificate. If you have a revoked certificate, you can also test it the same way as stated above. The response looks like this: $ openssl verify -crl.
  2. $ openssl s_client -showcerts -connect foo.localhost:8443 < /dev/null CONNECTED(00000003) depth=0 CN = foo.localhost verify error:num=20:unable to get local issuer certificate verify return:1 depth=0 CN = foo.localhost verify error:num=21:unable to verify the first certificate verify return:1 --- Certificate chain 0 s:/CN=foo.localhost i:/CN=foo.localhost -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE.
  3. On Mon, Mar 29, 2010, Lia Ipe wrote: > Hi, > > > I couldn't find sufficient information on this from the online openssl man > pages, or in any of the discussion forums, so Iwas hoping someone here > would be able to clarify. > > > > I am using openssl as part of my application for verifying certificates sent > by the server
  4. openssl s_server -accept 1443 -cert chain.pem -key server.key.pem. But when I try to check the chain from openssl, it fails. openssl s_client -connect 127.0.0.1:1443 -CAfile ca.cert.pem. CONNECTED (00000005) depth=0 CN = SERVER verify error:num=20:unable to get local issuer certificate verify return:1 depth=0 CN = SERVER verify error:num=21.
  5. openssl verify -CAfile root.pem -untrusted intermediate.pem application.pem -CAFile is the root certificate -untrusted is the intermidiate (if any) certificates application.pem is your application certificate The openSSL command above will check the chain to your application certificate and give you a: application.pem: OK if all is goo
  6. Verify a certificate chain using openssl verify. openssl certificate. Indra · Aug 25, 2014 · Viewed 410.2k times · Source. I'm building a own certificate chain with following componenents: Root Certificate - Intermediate Certificate - User Certificate Root Cert is a self signed certificate, Intermediate Certificate is signed by Root and User by Intermediate. Now I want to verify if a User.
  7. SSL certificates allow us to secure communication between the server and user. Unfortunately SSL certificates are a bit costly and are not prefered to be bought for development environments. This is where self-signed certificates come into picture. Creating a Self-signed certificate. We can create a self-signed certificate using the openssl comman

We will verify c2 using c3 certificate $ openssl verify -CApath /dev/null -partial_chain -trusted c3 c2 Verify c3. We will verify c3 using Google.pem certificate.In this step we do not need -partial_chain because Google.pem is self signed certificate which means root certificate. $ openssl verify -CApath /dev/null -trusted /etc/ssl/certs/Google. Verify return code: 19 (self signed certificate in certificate chain) Current Situation. This is a Ubuntu issue. For example, with the Fedora 20's openssl 1.0.1e or Fedora 29's openssl 1.1.1, this workaround is not necessary, because the issue cannot be reproduced Zertifizierungspfad beim SSL Zertificate (trusted chain) Bei der asymmetrischen Verschlüsselung, wie sie bei SSL/TLS gesicherter Kommunikation zum Einsatz kommt, benötigt der sendende Kommunikationspartner den öffentlichen Schlüssel (public key) des Empfängers. Bei dieser Kommunikation ist es äußerst wichtig, dass die Echtheit des. certificate verify failed (self signed certificate in certificate chain) (OpenSSL::SSL::SSLError) #69. Closed daveomcd opened this issue Sep 26, 2018 · 9 comments Closed certificate verify failed (self signed certificate in certificate chain) (OpenSSL::SSL::SSLError) #69. daveomcd opened this issue Sep 26, 2018 · 9 comments Labels. needs more information. Comments. Copy link Quote reply.

ssl - Openssl error 19: Self signed certificate in

How do I confirm I've the correct and working SSL certificates? OpenSSL comes with a generic SSL/TLS client which can establish a transparent connection to a remote server speaking SSL/TLS. It's intended for testing purposes only and provides only rudimentary interface functionality but internally uses mostly all functionality of the OpenSSL ssl library. For testing purpose I will use mail. The OpenSSL command invocation does suggest that as long as you are reading each of the certificates out of the ca-chain.cert.pem bundle (note that .NET will only read the first bundle out of a multi-PEM-payload file) into chain.ChainPolicy.ExtraStore that the chain build will succeed When I used openssl APIs to validate server certificate (self signed), I got following error : > error 19 at 1 depth.

Verify return code: 19 (self signed certificate in certificate chain) Hi all, I would like to get rid off the Verify return code: 19 (self signed certificate in certificate chain) message when connecting to my imap server via SSL Verify certificate; openssl verify -CAfile -untrusted Please note that you can provide multiple intermediate certs with -untrusted parameter. How to verify certificate chain. Let's assume we have 3 certificates as below (I have used facebook's cert chain for this example) Create Certificate chain and sign certificates using Openssl. Generate Root Certificate key. openssl genrsa -out RootCA.key 4096. Generate Root certificate. openssl req -new -x509 -days 1826 -key RootCA.key -out RootCA.crt. Generate Intermediate CA certificate key. openssl genrsa -out IntermediateCA.key 4096. Generate Intermediate.

SSL certificate problem: self signed certificate in certificate chain SSL certificate problem: unable to get local issuer certificate. A popular workaround is to disable SSL Verification using git config --global http.sslVerify false but that creates large security risks. SSL is a good thing & we should use it, even in cases where your company makes it difficult. The solution is to add the. Self Signed SSL Certificate Chains # When asked for Common Name fill in something # like 'My Dev Certificate Authority' $ openssl req -new -x509 -extensions v3_ca -keyout ca.key \ -out ca.crt -days 3650 You will have to answer some questions and hit enter a few times. If succesfull you will now have two files; a ca.key containing the private key that is encrypted using the passphrase you. In this article, I will take you through the steps to create a self signed certificate using openssl commands on Linux(RedHat CentOS 7/8). It is very important to secure your data before putting it on Public Network so that anyone cannot access it. Installing a SSL Certificate is the way through which you can secure your data. To install a certificate you need to generate it first. This can be.

Verify certificate chain with OpenSSL It's full of stars

SSL::verify_result¶. Gets the result code from peer certificate verification. The returned code uses the same values as those of OpenSSL's X509 verify_result (X509_V_ERR_) definitions I created a new internal CA , generated new server cert , edited the OpenVPN server config to use them and restarted openVPN services. However.it does not like the fact that is self sign and i get the following error: VERIFY ERROR: depth=1, error=self signed certificate in certificate chain: C=US, ST=Florida, L=Lake Worth, O=Palm Beach.

So yes, the certificate of the webinterface is self-signed by the internal CA of course. But this used to be no problem. But this used to be no problem. When I access the webinterface directly (without proxy) I have no issues, so I assume this has to do something with squid 2020 Update: If you want to dig deeper into self-signed SSL certificates, check out our related post called Troubleshooting Self-Signed SSL Certificate Issues and More in Postman. This post is applicable to the Postman Chrome app only. If you're using the Mac app, head to our documentation for details on ignoring SSL errors. Self-signed.. This makes sense: if OpenSSL no longer accepts the peer certificate to be equal to the supplied CA certificate (which actually is the server cert), it will try to traverse the chain supplied by the server, and end up at the real CA cert, which is indeed self-signed. Problem solved, case closed. Thanks eworm

verify return code 19 self signed certificate in

openssl chain of cert verification I need someone to help me with a C Program code for code signing of a binary file. Needs to be done with features - x509 chain of ECC (prime256v1) certificate using openSSL $ openssl verify pem-file $ openssl verify mycert.pem $ openssl verify cyberciti.biz.pem Sample outputs: cyberciti.biz.pem: OK. You will see OK message if everything checks out. If a certificate has expired, it will complain about it. Please note that OpenSSL won't verify a self-signed certificate. You can also retrieve the www.example.com. [root@centos8-1 certs]# cat self_signed_certificate.cnf [req] distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name prompt = no [req_distinguished_name] C = IN ST = Karnataka L = Banaglore O = GoLinuxCloud OU = SDM CN = centos8-1 Now to create CSR using this config file (If you have already created server.csr then you can ignore this): [root@centos8-1 certs]# openssl req -new -key server.key -out server. self signed certificate in certificate chain. 807567 Member Posts: 28,871. January 2009 edited January 2009 in Java System Web Server. Hi, I need to implemet SSL authentication between web browser and our web server. I have generated a CSR and got the certificate from our CA and imported it into the web server. I can access the application https://<IP>:<httpsport> successfully. But found this.

VERIFY ERROR: depth=1, error=self signed certificate in certificate chain both client and server sides are windows based I created client / server certificate using openvpn windows instructions when i try openssl verify, result of verification is OK any suggestions? Comment. Watch Question. Share. This problem has been solved! Join our exclusive community to see this answer & millions of. We will verify c2 using c3 certificate $ openssl verify -CApath /dev/null -partial_chain -trusted c3 c2. Verify c3. We will verify c3 using Google.pem certificate.In this step we do not need -partial_chain because Google.pem is self signed certificate which means root certificate. $ openssl verify -CApath /dev/null -trusted /etc/ssl/certs. $ openssl verify cert.pem cert.pem: C = Country, ST = State, it still fails to validate the chain. When using self signed certificates, you need to provide the Root CA certificate (and. The chain certificate file, as the name indicates provides a complete path for trust verification. Chain certificate file is nothing but a single file which contains all three certificates(end entity certificate, intermediate certificate, and root certificate). This can be done by simply appending one certificate after the other in a single. Creating and using Self-Signed Certificates. Creating host CSR via Server App interface and parsing CA-Issued Certificates into certificate store (Keyring Access) Creating Wildcard CSR via OpenSSL in bash, moving approriate key, cert, and chain files into /etc/certificates, assigning permissions, and editing .conf files to use customized certificate (can't be done in Server App as it won't.

OpenSSL - Dev - Cannot verify self-signed certificates

  1. OpenSSL生成自签名证书. 问题描述: 使用SmartGit工具clone项目时,弹出框提示信息为XXXX,SSL certificate problem: self signed certificate 问题分析: 提示信息为SSL认证失败,可以关闭SSL的认证 解决方案: 在windows的命令行窗口执行指令:set GIT_SSL_NO_VERIFY=true git clone 找到SmartGit
  2. Verify Openssl Installation Step 2: Create a Local Self-Signed SSL Certificate for Apache. 3. With the Apache web server and all the prerequisites in check, you need to create a directory within which the cryptographic keys will be stored.. In this example, we have created a directory at /etc/ssl/private. $ sudo mkdir -p /etc/ssl/privat
  3. Self-Signed Certificates; Certificate Signing Requests (CSR) Checking Certificate Information; Self-Signed Certificates . A common server operation is to generate a self-signed certificate. There are many reasons for doing this such as testing or encrypting communications between internal servers. The command below generates a private key and certificate. openssl req -x509 -sha256 -nodes -days.
  4. Once the certificates and keys are created, you will need to create a PEM certificate chain. Open Notepad and create new file name it chain.pem save it in same location where certificates and keys are. Open rui.crt and copy content to chaim.pem and save it. Now we are ready for the fun part

How To Verify Certificate Chain with OpenSSL? - POFTU

When building a certificate chain, if the first certificate chain found is not trusted, then OpenSSL will continue to check to see if an alternative chain can be found that is trusted. With this option that behaviour is suppressed so that only the first chain found is ever used. Using this option will force the behaviour to match that of previous OpenSSL versions Start and end date. Run the following OpenSSL command to get the start and end date for each certificate in the chain from entity to root and verify that all the certificates in the chain are in force (start date is before today) and are not expired.. Sample certificate expiry validation through start and end dates. openssl x509 -startdate -enddate -noout -in entity.pem notBefore=Feb 6 21:57. $ openssl verify chain.pem chain.pem: OK # or, using GnuTLS $ certtool -e --infile chain.pem Certificate[0]: C=GB,ST=Sussex,L=Some cool place,O=Your organization,CN=www.example.com Issued by: C=GB,ST=Greater Manchester,L=Salford,O=Comodo CA Limited,CN=PositiveSSL CA Verifying against certificate[1]. Verification output: Verified. Certificate[1]: C=GB,ST=Greater Manchester,L=Salford,O=Comodo CA.

Who are the certified experts? Our certified Experts are CTOs, CISOs, and Technical Architects who answer questions, write articles, and produce videos on Experts Exchange. 99% of them have full time tech jobs - they volunteer their time to help other people in the technology industry learn and succeed Self-Signed Certificates. On the other hand, a self signed certificate is not verified by a third party. Instead, your server issues its own SSL certificate so that it may serve encrypted HTTPS access to visitors. There is no third party to verify whether or not you are connecting to a trusted server. This causes modern web browsers to show a.

Get your certificate chain right

Getting MySQL working with self-signed SSL certificates is pretty simple. Having it working with a certificate signed by a trusted authority is also very simple, we just need to set the correct path and privileges to the file. The problem comes when we need to make MySQL validate the certificate signature against the authority public key. I've searched on the internet but wasn't able to. Else, you probably need to generate your own certificate. When using self-signed certificates, browsers will show a message that the page you're visiting cannot be trusted. Make sure everybody who'll access the GitLab URL knows this. In order to generate the certificate, we use Ubuntu and OpenSSL. If you don't already have OpenSSL installed, please do so. Additionally, the following steps. Allow verification to succeed even if a complete chain cannot be built to a self-signed trust-anchor, provided it is possible to construct a chain to a trusted certificate that might not be self-signed As Priyadi mentioned, openssl -verify stops at the first self signed certificate, hence you do not really verify the chain, as often the intermediate cert is self-signed. I assume that you want to be 101% sure, that the certificate files are correct before you try to install them in the productive web service Instead of manually building and checking the chain and then using it, you could use.

IRSSI: Connect to a server which uses a self-signed

-SOLVED-self signed certificate in certificate chain

Checking A Remote Certificate Chain With OpenSS

Certificate Chain: One signed certificate affirms that the attached public key belongs to its owner. A second signed certificate affirms the trustworthiness of the first signer, a third affirms the second, and so on. The top of the chain is a self-signed but widely trusted root certificate Verify certificate, when you have intermediate certificate chain and root certificate, that is . To build a self-signed certificate chain , begin by creating a certificate. The rest of the certificates needed to form the complete certificate chain can be specified using the SSL_CTX_add_extra_chain_cert(3) function. Copy the chain certificate , from the certificate pick up page, and paste it. You have a certificate which is self-signed, OpenSSL self signed certificate in certificate chain so it. 039. s non-trusted by default, that. 039. s why OpenSSL complains. This is actually a good thing, because this. We have openssl verify to check the validity of the chain of a local file: ~ % openssl verify -untrusted google.crt google.crt google.crt: OK It says OK, cool but it's not very verbose: I don't see the chain like openssl s_client does and if I play with openssl x509 it will only use the first certificate of the file

A self-signed certificate is a certificate that is signed with its own private key. Self-signed certificates can be used to encrypt data just as well as CA-signed certificates, but your users will be displayed a warning that says that the certificate is not trusted by their computer or browser. Therefore, self-signed certificates should only be used if you do not need to prove your service's. OpenSSL represents a single certificate with an X509 struct and a list of certificates, such as the certificate chain presented during a TLS handshake as a STACK_OF(X509). Given that the parsing and validation stems from here, it only seems reasonable to start with how to create or access an X509 object. A few common scenarios are If you must use HTTPS remotes, you can try the following: Copy the self-signed certificate or the internal root CA certificate to a local directory (for example, ~/.ssl) and configure Git to trust your certificate: git config --global http.sslCAInfo ~/.ssl/gitlab.domain.tld.crt. Disable SSL verification in your Git client Trust Certificate in your browser. To trust a self-signed certificate, you need to add it to your Keychain. The easiest way to do that is to open the site in question in Safari, upon which you should get this dialog box: Click 'Show Certificate' to reveal the full details: Export Certificate in .pem forma If the connection is established a certificate chain is returned: openssl.exe s_client -showcerts -connect us-cloud.acronis.com:443 CONNECTED(00000168) depth=2 C = US, ST = Arizona, L = Scottsdale, O = GoDaddy.com, Inc., CN = Go Daddy Root Certificate Authority - G2 verify error:num=19:self signed certificate in certificate chain --- Certificate chain 0 s:OU = Domain Control Validated, CN.

Hi, I am using python to open an HTTPS connection to a server that is using a USERTrust certificate. My application is running on an Ubuntu server. My application is running on an Ubuntu server. self signed certificate in certificate chain - SSL Certificate To obtain the certificate from site: 1. openssl s_client -showcerts -connect mail.google.com:443 -servername mail.google.com </dev/null 2>/dev/null >mail.google.com.cert. To obtain only from the -BEGIN CERTIFICATE- to and -END CERTIFICATE- of part of the certificate as needed for many purposes: 1. openssl s_client -showcerts -connect mail. The x509 parameter indicates that this will be a self-signed certificate. A temporary CSR is generated, and it is used only to gather the necessary information. Certificate Authorities do not verify self-signed certificates. Thus, they are not as secure as verified certificates. If a CA has not signed the certificate, every major browser will. Email Address []: That's it! Now you have 2 files in the folder where you ran the original command: server.cert is the self-signed certificate file. server.key is the private key of the certificate. Both files will be needed to establish the HTTPS connection, and depending on how you are going to setup your server, the process to use them. NPM Error: self signed certificate in certificate chain. Tag: ssl,npm,tsd. I am following the Angular 2 quick start guide and I'm stuck right at the beginning of it. My company is filtering our network connections and modifying SSL negociation. In a man in the middle style they assign a self signed certificate as the CA of the destination's certificate. Therefore when I execute the second.

OpenSSL commands to check and verify your SSL certificate

OpenSSL: Check SSL Certificate - Additional Information. Besides of the validity dates, an SSL certificate contains other interesting information. Each SSL certificate contains the information about who has issued the certificate, whom is it issued to, already mentioned validity dates, SSL certificate's SHA1 fingerprint and some other data. All these data can retrieved from a website's. It appears that allow_self_signed does not and cannot apply to the local_cert option. The stunnel verify=4 option, which verifies but ignores a CA, has no analog in these settings, which is unfortunate. Even more perplexingly, while the openssl verify -CAfile is successful, PHP appears unable to use the new ca/crt pair in any configuration Find answers to OpenVPN Certificate Problem::VERIFY ERROR: depth=1, error=self signed certificate in chain from the expert community at Experts Exchang defect: OPENSSL_VERIFY: The certificate chain failed OpenSSL's verification (0:10:CERT_HAS_EXPIRED). Çıktı aşağıdaki gibi veya benzer şekilde olabilir. 6:47:07 PM Checking example.com 6:47:07 PM ERROR TLS Status: Defective ERROR Certificate expiry: 5/17/18, 12:00 AM UTC (13.74 days ago) ERROR Defect: OPENSSL_VERIFY: The certificate chain failed OpenSSL's verification (0:10.

verify(1): Utility to verify certificates - Linux man pag

OpenSSL is a versatile command line tool that can be used for a large variety of tasks related to Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and HTTPS (HTTP over TLS). This cheat sheet style guide provides a quick reference to OpenSSL commands that are useful in common, everyday scenarios. This includes OpenSSL examples of generating private keys, certificate signing requests, and certificate format. Verify certificate chain with OpenSSL. Published by Tobias Hofmann on February 18, 2016 February 18, 2016. 6 min read. A good TLS setup includes providing a complete certificate chain to your clients. This means that your web server is sending out all certificates needed to validate its certificate, except the root certificate.. Starting from OpenSSL version 1.1.1h a check to disallow certificates with explicitly encoded elliptic curve parameters in the chain Therefore where a purpose is set the certificate chain will still be rejected even when the strict flag has been used. A purpose is set by default in libssl client and server certificate verification routines, but it can be overriden by an application. 比如我在windows下用git SSL certificate problem: self signed certificate. 执行Git命令时出现各种 SSL certificate problem 的解决办法 . officercat 2014-10-11 10:45:40 88880 收藏 27 分类专栏: 开发环境 文章标签: git ssl linux windows. 版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,遵循 CC 4.0 BY-SA 版权协议,转载请附上原文出处链接和本声明.

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